Archive for the ‘Apache-php’ Category


September 27, 2010

I”m attempting to install a fresh version of awstats

1) Downloaded version 6.95 from the site.

2) Unzip anywhere you want – awstats

Directory structure is




  • cgi-bin/
  • classes/
  • css/
  • icon/
  • js/

3) File permissions appear to be correct

-rwxr-xr-x 1 root staff 7126 2010-06-06 17:10

-rw-r–r– 1 root staff 60959 2010-06-06 17:10 awstats.model.conf

-rwxr-xr-x 1 root staff 624764 2010-06-06 17:10

drwxr-sr-x 5 root staff 4096 2010-06-06 17:10 lang

drwxr-sr-x 2 root staff 4096 2010-06-06 17:10 lib

drwxr-sr-x 3 root staff 4096 2010-06-06 17:10 plugins

4) I have a site config file in /etc/awstats/

5) My important settings in it are:


LogFormat = 4






6) Add the following with httpd.conf file ( or simply run ) and restarted apache –

# Directives to allow use of AWStats as a CGI
Alias /awstatsclasses “awstats/wwwroot/classes/”
Alias /awstatscss “awstats/wwwroot/css/”
Alias /awstatsicons “awstats/wwwroot/icon/”
ScriptAlias /awstats/ “awstats/wwwroot/cgi-bin/”

[ Here I just use dummy path, replace your awstats location correctly ]
# This is to permit URL access to scripts/files in AWStats directory.
<Directory “awstats/wwwroot”>
Options None
AllowOverride None
Order allow,deny
Allow from all
AuthName “Apache AWstat Access”
AuthType Basic
AuthUserFile awstats/awstats.users
Require valid-user

7) Then successfully run awstats/wwwroot/cgi-bin/ -update

8) Run awstats/tools/ -update -awstatsprog=awstats/wwwroot/cgi-bin/ -dir=awstats/data(Optional)

9) Now hit

Apache + tomcat (mod_jk)

March 10, 2010

1. Install Apache, Tomcat and mod_jk

Install Apache (with devel package), Tomcat (with webapps package) and apache2-mod_jk. start both. You can check Apache by pointing your browser at localhost and Tomcat by pointing your browser at localhost:8080 (you should get the default start page).

2. Configure mod_jk

Next, edit /etc/apache2/httpd.conf and add:

# Load mod_jk module
LoadModule jk_module modules/

JkWorkersFile /local/tomcat/conf/jk/

# Where to put jk logs
JkLogFile /local/apache2/logs/mod_jk_log

# Set the jk log level [debug/error/info]
JkLogLevel info

# Select the log format
JkLogStampFormat “[%a %b %d %H:%M:%S %Y] ”

# JkOptions indicate to send SSL KEY SIZE,
JkOptions +ForwardKeySize +ForwardURICompat -ForwardDirectories

# JkRequestLogFormat set the request format
JkRequestLogFormat “%w %V %T”

# Send servlet for context /examples to worker named worker1
JkMount /your-url/* worker1

You can do this alternatively in your vhost. This configuration will send all jsp’s and all in the path /servlets-examples/* to Tomcat. If you know the exact path to your servlet, you can write:

JkMount /trn-webapp-0.8.1/map worker1

for example, where map is the servlet

Next, create /etc/apache2/ with the following content:


Then, goto /etc/tomcat5/base/ and check your server.xml. You should find something like this:

Make sure, it is enabled (without ).

At this point, you can edit also your /etc/tomcat5/base/tomcat-users.xml. You can replace it with this:

You should replace root and password with your own settings

For testing purposes, edit httpd.conf and set Document Root, Directory and Options:

ScriptAlias /modjk/ /usr/local/apache/modjk/

AllowOverride None
Options none
Order allow,deny
Allow from localhost

Now first restart Tomcat, then Apache. (If you change something in Tomcat, everytime restart Tomcat first and then restart Apache, too!)

Apache unusual bugs or warning

March 10, 2010

1. [warn] (128)Network is unreachable: connect to listener on [::]:80

Your apache config has some serious bugs.

Please check the IP addresses. Either of
the Listen-statement or of your Virtual Hosts.
“[::]:80” does not look good.


You can try changing these to “Listen” and :80 respectively including virtual host
listen address too.

creating a self-signed SSL Certificate

February 28, 2010

Normal web traffic is sent unencrypted over the Internet. That is, anyone with access to the right tools can snoop all of that traffic. Obviously, this can lead to problems, especially where security and privacy is necessary, such as in credit card data and bank transactions. The Secure Socket Layer is used to encrypt the data stream between the web server and the web client (the browser).
SSL makes use of what is known as asymmetric cryptography, commonly referred to as public key cryptography (PKI). With public key cryptography, two keys are created, one public, one private. Anything encrypted with either key can only be decrypted with its corresponding key. Thus if a message or data stream were encrypted with the server’s private key, it can be decrypted only using its corresponding public key, ensuring that the data only could have come from the server.

Step 1: Generate a Private Key

The openssl toolkit is used to generate an RSA Private Key and CSR (Certificate Signing Request). It can also be used to generate self-signed certificates which can be used for testing purposes or internal usage.

The first step is to create your RSA Private Key. This key is a 1024 bit RSA key which is encrypted using Triple-DES and stored in a PEM format so that it is readable as ASCII text.

openssl genrsa -des3 -out server.key 1024

Generating RSA private key, 1024 bit long modulus
e is 65537 (0x10001)
Enter PEM pass phrase:
Verifying password – Enter PEM pass phrase:

Step 2: Generate a CSR (Certificate Signing Request)

Once the private key is generated a Certificate Signing Request can be generated. The CSR is then used in one of two ways. Ideally, the CSR will be sent to a Certificate Authority, such as Thawte or Verisign who will verify the identity of the requestor and issue a signed certificate. The second option is to self-sign the CSR, which will be demonstrated in the next section.

During the generation of the CSR, you will be prompted for several pieces of information. These are the X.509 attributes of the certificate. One of the prompts will be for “Common Name (e.g., YOUR name)”. It is important that this field be filled in with the fully qualified domain name of the server to be protected by SSL. If the website to be protected will be, then enter at this prompt. The command to generate the CSR is as follows

openssl req -new -key server.key -out server.csr

Country Name (2 letter code) [GB]:****
State or Province Name (full name) [Berkshire]:****
Locality Name (eg, city) [Newbury]:****
Organization Name (eg, company) [My Company Ltd]:****
Organizational Unit Name (eg, section) []:*****
Common Name (eg, your name or your server’s hostname) []:****
Email Address []:martin dot zahn at akadia dot ch
Please enter the following ‘extra’ attributes
to be sent with your certificate request
A challenge password []:
An optional company name []:

Step 3: Remove Passphrase from Key

One unfortunate side-effect of the pass-phrased private key is that Apache will ask for the pass-phrase each time the web server is started. Obviously this is not necessarily convenient as someone will not always be around to type in the pass-phrase, such as after a reboot or crash. mod_ssl includes the ability to use an external program in place of the built-in pass-phrase dialog, however, this is not necessarily the most secure option either. It is possible to remove the Triple-DES encryption from the key, thereby no longer needing to type in a pass-phrase. If the private key is no longer encrypted, it is critical that this file only be readable by the root user! If your system is ever compromised and a third party obtains your unencrypted private key, the corresponding certificate will need to be revoked. With that being said, use the following command to remove the pass-phrase from the key:

cp server.key
openssl rsa -in -out server.key

The newly created server.key file has no more passphrase in it.

-rw-r–r– 1 root root 745 Jun 29 12:19 server.csr
-rw-r–r– 1 root root 891 Jun 29 13:22 server.key
-rw-r–r– 1 root root 963 Jun 29 13:22

Step 4: Generating a Self-Signed Certificate

At this point you will need to generate a self-signed certificate because you either don’t plan on having your certificate signed by a CA, or you wish to test your new SSL implementation while the CA is signing your certificate. This temporary certificate will generate an error in the client browser to the effect that the signing certificate authority is unknown and not trusted.

To generate a temporary certificate which is good for 365 days, issue the following command:

openssl x509 -req -days 365 -in server.csr -signkey server.key -out server.crt
Signature ok
subject=/C=CH/ST=Bern/L=Oberdiessbach/O=Akadia AG/OU=Information
Technology/ dot zahn at akadia dot ch
Getting Private key

Step 5: Installing the Private Key and Certificate

When Apache with mod_ssl is installed, it creates several directories in the Apache config directory. The location of this directory will differ depending on how Apache was compiled.

cp server.crt /usr/local/apache/conf/ssl.crt
cp server.key /usr/local/apache/conf/ssl.key

Step 6: Configuring SSL Enabled Virtual Hosts

SSLEngine on
SSLCertificateFile /usr/local/apache/conf/ssl.crt/server.crt
SSLCertificateKeyFile /usr/local/apache/conf/ssl.key/server.key
SetEnvIf User-Agent “.*MSIE.*” nokeepalive ssl-unclean-shutdown
CustomLog logs/ssl_request_log \
“%t %h %{SSL_PROTOCOL}x %{SSL_CIPHER}x \”%r\” %b”

Step 7: Restart Apache and Test

/etc/init.d/httpd stop
/etc/init.d/httpd stop

Building extra apache module

July 4, 2008

apxs -Compile -i proxy.c

apxs -c -i proxy.c mod_proxy_connect.c mod_proxy_http.c proxy_util.c

When u execute this command u must have permission to write to apache installation directory.